The project examined the fundamental importance of the Sacrament for discourses and practices of representation in the Early Modern period. An interdisciplinary collaboration of art history, literature, and philosophy, drawing on debates and exemplary works from the 16th and 17th centuries, showed how the discourse of signs/symbols and their representative and performative power explicitly and implicitly refer back to debates about the Sacrament. Thus, the representational culture of the Early Modern period as a whole can be read as a legacy of discussion about the Reformation, which still remains effective even where it no longer explicitly deals with sacramental theological issues.
In the last decades, the study of the Early Modern period has emphasized a concept of representation that provides a way to describe processes of epistemology, media history, and politics. In its work, the project stressed the importance of sacred practices and models of representation over other approaches. The Eucharist, which was surrounded by a system of holy symbols, images, and rituals, whose modes are in principle determined by a tension between presence and representation, was one of the most important sites of cultural clashes in the Reformation and has since then been decisive for the entire episteme of representation.
Sacramental representation in various media are by no means limited to the sacramental piety or the theological debates about the Sacrament itself, but concern the phenomena of transfer and overdetermination in sacred and profane cultural techniques of the Early Modern period. When the issue of whether something is ›purely‹ symbolic or something ›more‹ is addressed, the model of the Sacrament is always evoked. The martyrs of the Early Modern period are presented either as witnesses of truth or are used to enhance reflection on theater. On the one hand, seemingly quite different philosophical, aesthetic and political discourses, media, and practices are used to think of the Sacrament and to verify its respective interpretation. On the other hand, such discourses and practices are inversely reflected by sacramental models and concepts. They set the scene, when, for instance, in allegorical theater an emblematic sense is attributed to the execution of the action on stage. Such reflections cannot be understood simply as ›secularization‹ of theological thought figures and cannot even situate themselves denominationally, but rather show in themselves the tension and the need for negotiation between different religious groups, between different media practices, semiotics and policies.
The wide range of contributions from history, religion, art, and literature to the workshop on Sacramental Representation supported the diverse and interdisciplinary outreach of the project.
The extension and clarification of the existing dominant historical research or denominational-specific typology of presence vs. representation in favor of a media-and cultural-historical perspective on the various discursive interfaces and turning points of the sacramental paradigm in the early modern period proved to be particularly fruitful.
In this sense, the project drew up a collective monograph, which situates the concept of the ›sacramental representation‹ in the context of previous research approaches (e.g. discourse analysis, secularization debates, media history) and unfurled it in a series of individual studies that dealt with the role of Sacrament discourse in epistemology and sign theory, iconology, image criticism and emblemata, in the Baroque theater, in the rhetoric and poetics of spiritual lyric poetry, and finally in political theory.
- “Body and Time: The Representation of the Naked and Clothed Self in Religious, Social, and Cosmological Orders (Matthäus Schwarz, 1497–1574),” in: Franz-Josef Arlinghaus (ed.): Forms of Individuality and Literacy in the Medieval and Early Modern Epochs, Turnhout: Brepols Publishers 2015, pp. 259–301
- “Wandlungen eines sakramentalen Bildverbundes in der Reformation. Das Schneeberger Retabel von Lucas Cranach dem Älteren,” in: David Ganz, Felix Thürlemann (eds.): Das Bild im Plural. Mehrteilige Bildformen zwischen Mittelalter und Gegenwart, Berlin: Reimer 2010, pp. 10–35
- “Eben doch von Menschenhand gemacht – Lucas Cranach und der Kunstdiskurs der Vera-Icon-Bilder,” in: Martin Büchsel, Rebecca Müller (eds.): Intellektualisierung und Mystifizierung mittelalterlicher Kunst. ‘Kultbild’ – Revision eines Begriffs, Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag 2010, pp. 207–232
- “Abdruck und Einschnitt – Die medialen Träger der Spur als appendicia exteriora des Christuskörpers,” in: Bildwelten des Wissens. Kunsthistorisches Jahrbuch für Bildkritik, vol. 8,1, 2010, pp. 83–94
- “Das Holz des Lebensbaumes, des Kreuzes und des Altarretabels: Die Cranach‘sche Neufassung einer sakramentalen Bildgattung,” in: Thomas Pöpper, Susanne Wegmann (eds.): Das Bild des neuen Glaubens. Das Cranach-Retabel der Schneeberger St. Wolfgangskirche, Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner, 2011, pp. 101–117
- “Reading Images, Printing Voices: Simulation of Media and Epistemic Reflection in German Baroque Literature,” in: Helmut Puff, Ulrike Strasser, Christopher Wild (eds.): Cultures of Communication, Theologies of Media in Early Modern Europe and Beyond, Toronto: University of Toronto Press 2018, pp. 142–160
- “Sagen, Glauben, Zeigen. Politik der Repräsentation in Martyriologien der Reformation,” in: Wolfgang Drews, Heike Schlie (eds.): Zeugnis und Zeugenschaft. Perspektiven aus der Vormoderne, München: Fink 2011, pp. 167–195
- “Gespielte Zeugen. Schauspieler-Märtyrer im Barocktheater,” in: Silvia Horsch, Martin Treml (eds.): Grenzgänger der Religionskulturen: kulturwissenschaftliche Beiträge zu Gegenwart und Geschichte der Märtyrer, München: Fink 2011, pp. 259–280
- “Kreatürlichkeit. Benjamins Trauerspielbuch und das Leben des Barock,” in: Daniel Weidner (ed.): Profanes Leben. Walter Benjamins Dialektik der Säkularisierung, Frankfurt a.M.: 2010, pp. 120–138
- “‘Schau in dem Tempel an / Den ganz zerstückten Leib, der auf dem Kreuze lieget‘. Sakramentale Repräsentation in Gryphius’ ‘Leo Armenius’,” in: Daphnis, vol. 39, 2010, pp. 287–312
Orte der Imagination – Räume des Affekts: Die mediale Formierung des Sakralen (1100–1600)
ZfL, Schützenstr. 18, 10117 Berlin, 3. Et., R. 303