Early Modes of Writing the Shoah. Practices of Knowledge and Textual Practices of Jewish Survivors in Europe 1942–1965 (PREMEC)

This project was focused on the practices of knowledge and the textual practices of five Jewish authors who developed distinctive modes of writing about the Shoah between 1942 and 1965. The project examined works by Joseph Wulf, Michel Borwicz, Nachman Blumental, and Noé Grüss, who belonged to the Central Jewish Historical Commission in Poland and later immigrated to France and Germany. In addition to this group of authors, the project also considered the writings of H.G. Adler from Czechoslovakia, who immigrated to England in 1947. Even while detained as prisoners or on the run from the Nazis, these authors still conducted research on genocide (including collections of documents and witness reports) and developed different modes of writing (literary, testimonial, academic, in different styles and genres) that articulated new forms of knowledge. Their writings are characterized by their interdisciplinarity and the ways in which they balance and shift between objectivizing and subjectivizing gestures. This body of work is polyvalent right down to the diverse modes of writing, through which the texts combine and blend the perspectives of the scholar with those of the author and/or eyewitness.

Up until now, these authors have been treated separately as belonging to discrete fields of knowledge (some to history, some to literature). Departing from this divisive approach, the project examined the multifaceted nature of their practices and further asks how the knowledge the texts produce and the modes of writing they employ undermine or even transcend the usual divisions between styles, genres, and disciplines. As part of this examination, the project also pursued the hypothesis that, on the one hand, there are certain lines of continuity between the practices of knowledge developed before the war and those that followed, while, on the other hand, there was a significant rupture in practices of knowledge that might be interpreted as the result of the “Catastrophe” that befell human knowledge with the Shoah. This study made it possible to better comprehend the epistemological value of these practices and the extent to which they still apply to research today—not just in the specialized field of Holocaust studies but also more broadly in the field of the history of knowledge.

The establishment of the Shoah as an object of knowledge was analyzed according to the following three aspects:

  • The presentation of a heretofore marginalized text collection that was written before the “era of the witness” hailed by the 1961 Eichmann trial.
  • The analysis of an innovative culture of knowledge surrounding these texts and embedded in specific cultural and political contexts.
  • The combination of approaches from the epistemology of history and social science with the unique forms of knowledge that literature and witness testimonies make available.

The goals of the project relied on an interdisciplinary approach that unites the field of history with literary studies, in particular the French histoire culturelle des écrits (“cultural history of writing”) with the German Kulturwissenschaft (“cultural studies”).

The PREMEC-project took place in German-French cooperation. Historians and literary scholars of the two linguistic areas were engaged in dialogue in order to bring German-French dynamics into the European exploration of the Shoah.

Head of the project was Aurélia Kalisky (ZfL). She was supported by Nicolas Berg (Simon Dubnow Institute), Elisabeth Gallas (Simon Dubnow Institute) and Katrin Stoll (Imre Kertész Kolleg Jena).

The main cooperation partners in France were Judith Lyon-Caen (EHESS / GRIHL / CRH) and Malena Chinski (EHESS / GRIHL / CRH).
Audrey Kichelewski (Straßburg University) and Anna Saignes (Grenoble University) also worked on the French side.

Funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) 2017–2021
Head researcher(s): Aurélia Kalisky


Aurélia Kalisky (ed./eds.)
Translated from Yiddish by Almut Seiffert and Miriam Trinh. Introduction and epilogue by Aurélia Kalisky

Salmen Gradowski: Die Zertrennung
Aufzeichnungen eines Mitglieds des Sonderkommandos

Jüdischer Verlag im Suhrkamp Verlag, Berlin 2019, 354 pages
ISBN 978-3-633-54280-2

Aurélia Kalisky


16 Jun 2021 · 2.15 pm

Aurélia Kalisky: Mallette clandestine, témoignages exilés, livres voyageurs : l’archive dispersée de H.G. Adler

Musée d’Art et d’Histoire du Judaïsme (MAHJ), Hôtel de Saint-Aignan, 71 Rue du Temple, 75003 Paris

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17 Apr 2021 · 4.00 pm

Noah Benninga and Aurélia Kalisky: Problematic Sources and Hybrid Methodologies: The Case of the Sonderkommando Manuscripts

online via Zoom

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13 Feb 2020 · 7.00 pm

Aurélia Kalisky: David Rousset in der französischen Erinnerungsliteratur

Institut français Berlin, "Maison de France", Kurfürstendamm 211, 10719 Berlin

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Lecture and talk
23 Jan 2020 · 7.00 pm

Aurélia Kalisky: Anna Langfus und die Shoah

Institut français Leipzig, Thomaskirchhof 20, 04109 Leipzig

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21 Jan 2020 · 7.00 pm

Aurélia Kalisky: Anna Langfus und die Literatur der Shoah

Goethe-Institut Dresden, Königsbrücker Straße 84, 01099 Dresden

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International Workshop in Leipzig
21 Oct 2019 – 22 Oct 2019

»Sprachhandeln«. Reflexionen über die deutsche Sprache nach dem Holocaust

Leibniz-Institute for Jewish History and Culture – Simon Dubnow (DI), Goldschmidtstr. 28, 04103 Leipzig, Seminarraum

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24 Sep 2019 · 8.30 am

Aurelia Kalisky: The Theoretical Potential of Early Holocaust Testimonies and Historiography

Charles University, Opletalova 38, 110 00 Staré Město, Prag (CZ)

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Workshop in Paris
06 Jun 2019 · 9.30 am

Rythmer le chaos. Composition, circulation et collecte des chansons et poèmes des ghettos et des camps nazis

EHESS, 96 bd Raspail, 75006 Paris, Salle Lombard (France)

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09 Apr 2019 · 9.30 am

Aurélia Kalisky: Refusal to Testify. Testimony, Denial, and the Violence of Law

Leibniz-Institut für jüdische Geschichte und Kultur – Simon Dubnow, Goldschmidtstraße 28, 04103 Leipzig

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Workshop in Warsaw
13 Mar 2019 · 10.30 am

Translating M. M. Borwicz

Warsaw University, Institute of Applied Social Sciences (Instytut Stosowanych Nauk Społecznych), Warsaw, Żurawia 4, room 205

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Event note: Conference
21 Feb 2019 – 22 Jan 2019

La nouvelle Ècole Polonaise D'Histoire de la Shoah

EHESS, 105 bd Raspail, 75006 Paris (FR)

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12 Jun 2018 · 9.30 am

Exil et apatridie dans le Berlin de l’entre-deux-guerres. Ville du refuge ou lieu de transit? (With Aurélia Kalisky)

Centre Marc Bloch, Friedrichstraße 191, 10117 Berlin

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28 May 2018 · 2.00 pm

Aurélia Kalisky: A Case of Historiographic Perversion? Regarding the Genocide of the Tutsi

American University of Paris, The George and Irina Schaeffer Center for the Study of Genocide, Human Rights and Conflict Prevention, 6 rue du Colonel Combes, 75007 Paris (FR)

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International conference
12 Apr 2018 – 13 Apr 2018

Telling, Describing, Representing Extermination. The Auschwitz Sonderkommando, their Testimony and their Legacy

Centre Marc Bloch (CMB), Friedrichstraße 191, 10117 Berlin / ZfL, Schützenstr. 18, 10117 Berlin, 3. floor, conferece room

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PREMEC - Second Workshop in Paris
16 Feb 2018

Joseph Wulf: A Polish-Jewish Historian in Western Germany. The Knowledge of the Witness, the Engagement of the Historian and the Writing of History

Académie polonaise des sciences à Paris, 74 rue Lauriston, 75016 Paris

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Lecture by Nicolas Berg and discussion with Aurélia Kalisky
15 Feb 2018 · 11.00 am

West German Historians and the Holocaust. A critical Reconsideration of their Topics, Narratives and Concepts

École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 54 Boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris (FR), Salle AS1_24

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PREMEC - First Workshop at EHESS in Paris
24 Apr 2017 · 9.00 am

Early Modes of Writing the Shoah. Practices of Knowledge and Textual Practices of Jewish Survivors in Europe (1942–1965)

EHESS, 105 Boulevard Raspail 75006 PARIS

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Media Response

26 Jan 2024
“Der am Rand des Grabes steht, bin ich…”

Reveiw by Roland Kaufhold, in: haGalil.com, 26 Jan 2024

13 Apr 2021
Salmen Gradowski: Die Zertrennung

Review by Stephan Lehnstaedt, in: Journal of East Central European Studies 70.1 (2021), 124–125; also published in: sehepunkte 21.7–8 (2021)

31 Mar 2020
Salmen Gradowski: Die Zertrennung

Review by Werner Renz, in: Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 3 (2020), 269–271

23 Mar 2020
»Sprachhandeln«. Reflexionen über die deutsche Sprache nach dem Holocaust

Workshop review by Cornelia von Einem, in: H-Soz-Kult, 23 Mar 2020

24 Jan 2020
Niemals sollte die Welt dies erfahren. Zwei Editionen präsentieren Zeugnisse von Mitgliedern des Sonderkommandos Auschwitz

Review by Marie Luise Knott, in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 24 Jan 2020

06 Feb 2019
Die erste Generation. Historiker des Holocaust

Article by René Schlott, in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 06 Feb 2019